1. Approval to print.
An "approval to print" is a trial proof upon which the artist has noted (in
writing) minor changes and/or corrections yet to be made and has given his or
her approval to the printing of an edition. To avoid misunderstandings, such
an approval to print must be precise and explicit. The flaws which cause a trial
proof to be signed "approval to print" rather than bon à tirer must be minor
and easily correctable. The printer cannot accept an approval to print if major
changes in the image or in color are required. [top of page]
2. Artist's proof.
An artist's proof is an impression which is essentially like impressions in
the numbered edition. Artist's proofs are limited in number to 5 or to 10 percent
of the edition size.[top of page]
3. Blended inking.
Blended inking is a process through which two or more colors are printed simultaneously
from a single roller. It is sometimes also called a "split fountain" or a "rainbow
roll."[top of page
] 4. Blindstamp.
All impressions or proofs printed at Tamarind carry the Tamarind chop or blindstamp
as well as that of the individual printer. At the artist's discretion either
the embossed chop may be used or the edition may be blindstamped in ink on the
reverse of each impression. [top of page]
5. Bon à tirer impression.
The bon à tirer is the first impression which is fully acceptable to the artist
and the printer. It is printed on the same fine paper as will be used for the
printing of the edition and is inscribed by the artist, bon à tirer (or, if
abbreviated, B.A.T.), literally translated as "good to pull." This impression
serves as the standard of quality to which each impression is compared as each
edition is printed.[top of page]
6. Cancellation proof.
After the full edition has been printed, the artist or printer may abrade the
key stone or plate in such a way as partially to destroy the image. An impression
is then pulled off this defaced image as evidence of the fact that the edition
has been limited and that no additional impressions can be made.[top
7. Charges for printing.
Tamarind's charges for printing include the following: (a) a base charge covering
use and preparation of printing elements, collaborative services during drawing
and proofing, lithographic materials and rough papers, and ten proofs and/or
impressions, however designated; (b) impression charges, for the eleventh and
all subsequent proofs and/or impressions; and (c) paper charges. Surcharges
are added for use of large stones, photographic processes, special curatorial
services, etc.; or for the scheduling of more than two proofing sessions. No
charge is made for proofs or impressions which become the property of the collaborating
printer(s) or of Tamarind Institute. The artist is given an estimate of these
charges in a preliminary contract prepared before work begins. That estimate
is subject to upward or downward revision as work progresses.[top
9. Closely related editions.
Closely related editions are defined as those which make use of one or more
of the same printing elements, or which use the same printing element, after
substantial alteration of its image. When a numbered edition is to be printed
and after alteration of the printing element, a second numbered edition is printed;
only such intermediate proofs as may exist between the two editions are designated
state proofs. [top of page]
10. Color separation proof.
An impression printed in color from a single stone or plate of a multi-color
print may be designated as a color separation proof. This term will normally
be used only to designate a proof which is not included in a full series of
progressive proofs. [top of page]
11. Color trial proof.
A color trial differs from the numbered edition in the color of one or more
of the inks that are used. Such impressions usually come into being as the artist
makes adjustments in color during proofing, and it is not uncommon that in the
printing of a complex color lithograph there may be several such proofs, each
differing from the other.[top of page]
12. Dead proof.
In the early stages of proofing, an impression is sometimes pulled on the reverse
side of a sheet of fine paper which bears on its face a rejected proof. Such
a proof is called a dead proof. It is the responsibility of the printer immediately
to destroy such a proof (usually by tearing off a corner of the sheet) as it
is taken from the press. Under no circumstances is such a proof permitted to
leave the workshop.[top of page]
13. Fine paper.
The term "fine paper" is used to describe paper of a quality satisfactory for
use in the printing of an edition. "Rough papers" of non-archival quality are
also used in initial stages of proofing. Proofs on such papers are normally
destroyed. [top of page]
14. Lettered proof.
When only a few proofs are pulled, either as an experiment or because a technical
problem has prevented the printing of an edition, they may be designated by
letters: Proof A, Proof B. etc. This designation is used only in the absence
of a numbered edition.[top of page]
15. Numbered edition.
Each impression in the numbered edition is compared to the bon à tirer impression
prior to signature and, to be acceptable, must be essentially like it. Arabic
numbers are used (see also, Roman numbered edition, paragraph 24). The lower
number indicates the size of the edition. The upper number indicates the sequence
in which the impressions have been signed. In the printing of an edition of
lithographs, the first impression would be no different from the last; there
is thus no reason to record the sequence in which they are printed. In color
lithography such a practice would in any event be meaningless, for the impressions
are not normally printed in the same sequence as each color is added. The true
meaning of the number, 1/20, is that the impression is one of an edition of
20, not specifically that it is the first of twenty. [top of
16. Permanence of color inks.
Tamarind has conducted extensive research to assure that all inks used in the
workshop are stable and permanent. Even so, the nature of lithographic inks
is such that permanence can be stated only in relative, not absolute terms.
Inks used in pale and transparent tint mixtures are somewhat more likely to
fade than are inks of maximum concentration. Problems also exist with respect
to certain dark blue, purple, and black ink mixtures which when heavily printed
in solid or flat areas on top of earlier ink layers may tend to "bronze" (take
on a copper-like tone) or dry unevenly. The violet and purple range of the spectrum
is lacking in pigments which meet all requirements for truly satisfactory lithographic
inks. Tamarind can make no warranties as to the permanence of inks used in the
workshop other than to state that it will at all times use only the best inks
available in the marketplace.[top of page]
17. Presentation proof.
On occasion an artist may wish to inscribe an impression of a lithograph to
a friend or collaborator. If such impressions also bear designation as artist's
proofs they will be recorded as such. If however, they bear no designation other
that the artist's dedication or inscription, they will be recorded in documentation
as presentation proofs.[top of page]
18. Printer's proof.
On occasion, more than one printer participates to a substantial extent in the
proofing and/or printing of an edition. When this occurs, a printer's proof
is pulled for that second printer. Rarely, if a third printer participates in
the project, a printer's proof II may be designated. Such impressions, when
they exist, are essentially comparable to the bon à tirer impression. [top
20. Progressive proof.
A series of progressive proofs may sometimes be printed to record the development
of a color lithograph. As example, a set of progressive proofs for a four-color
lithograph would include the following: Stone A, B, A+B, C, A+B+C, D. The final
impression in the series (A+B+C+D) may, on some occasions become the bon à tirer
impression; on other occasions it may be designated as a trial proof or a progressive
proof.[top of page]
21. Proofing session.
A proofing session has been completed when each printing element to be used
in the making of a
multi-color lithograph has been printed one upon another on a single sheet of
paper. If an initial proofing session demonstrates a need to alter one or more
of the printing elements, a second proofing session may be required in order
to reach a bon à tirer impression. A surcharge is necessarily added to the contract
when more than two proofing sessions are required in order to achieve a bon
à tirer impression or an approval to print.[top of page]
22. Publication proof.
Unsigned and unchopped impressions (not in excess of five) will be printed on
occasion for use in connection with print sales. Such impressions will be clearly
marked publication proof, not for sale in indelible ink, and will be further
cancelled by cutting a corner from the sheet of paper or punching a hole within
the image. All such impressions will be destroyed as soon as they have served
their purpose.[top of page]
23. Record impression.
One record impression is printed when there is no numbered edition and only
proofs are preserved, or when Tamarind elects not to print the two Tamarind
impressions.[top of page]
24. Roman numbered edition.
In addition to the numbered edition (numbered with Arabic numerals) a smaller
Roman numbered edition is sometimes printed. All impressions included in such
an edition are essentially comparable to the bon à tirer impression, but are
sometimes printed on paper different from that used in the printing of the numbered
edition.[top of page]
25. Separation proof.
Separation proofs are impressions of the separate stones or plates, printed
in black, which may be printed in order to facilitate reproduction of the image
in catalogues or magazines.[top of page]
26. State proof.
State proofs are impressions that differ markedly from the numbered edition.
Such impressions come into being prior to major alterations in the stone or
plate. If an image undergoes a series of major modifications, there may well
be a series of differing state proofs which together record the state in its
evolution.[top of page]
27. Tamarind Impression.
Four Tamarind impressions are normally printed as part of each edition. These
impressions are retained by Tamarind Institute and the University of New Mexico
Art Museum for exhibition and study.[top of page]
28. Tamarind number.
Every edition printed at Tamarind Institute is assigned a number which is then
used in print documentation and catalogues. These numbers are assigned consecutively
beginning in January of each year: 82-301, 82-302, 82-303, etc. (The first digit
following the hyphen is a code for record-keeping purposes and has no other
meaning.) [top of page]
29. Trial proof.
A trial proof is an impression printed prior to the printing of the bon à tirer
impression. Trial proofs may sometimes differ slightly from the numbered edition
if they are printed prior to minor corrections in the stone or plate. They may
simply be weak impressions printed en route to the bon à tirer, or they may
be trial impressions on a paper different from that ultimately chosen by the
artist for the printing of the edition. Only impressions printed in black or
in colors identical to those used in the edition are designated as trial proofs.
Other trial proofs are designated color trial proofs (see paragraph 10).[top
30. Variation within edition.
The nature of the lithographic process is such that subsequent impressions may
vary slightly from the bon à tirer impression, although within a narrow range.
For this reason Tamarind describes the impressions included within the numbered
edition as "essentially like" one another rather than "identical" to the bon
à tirer impression. Tamarind seeks always to maintain the highest possible standards
within the technical limitations of the medium. [top of page]